GREY PIPPIN A rare old variety which came to us from the Tann family apple collection at Aldham, near Colchester, Essex. It seems to be a variety local to a part of Essex, but nothing was known of its history, until we discovered a reference to it, by Mortimer, in 1707. It might also be the Gray’s Pippin of Forsyth (1810). A medium sized apple, grey-green with attractive russeting, turning golden when fully ripe. It is a late dessert apple; crisp, juicy, sweet and packed with complex flavours. Part tip bearing. The accession in the National Collection has recently been DNA profiled and found the same as Cockle Pippin. These two apples seem distinct, but we retain an open mind. Pollination Group 5




GRIMES GOLDEN Originating from before 1802, the most reliable history is given in ‘Old Southern Apples’ by Calhoun. In about 1790 Edward Cranford planted apple seeds at his farm in Brooks County, West Virginia and then sold the farm to Thomas Grimes in 1802. He found this apple and sold it to traders, who took it down river to New Orleans, achieving considerable popularity along the way. It later became one of the parents of Golden Delicious. In 1872 trees were being sold by Scott who described it as a top quality, late season dessert apple, best from December and keeping to March. The skin is rich golden yellow, thinly sprinkled with small grey and light dots. The flesh is yellow, compact, tender, juicy and rich with a spicy subacid flavour and unusual aroma. The tree is very hardy and never breaks its limbs, being supported by peculiar knobs at the base of each branch. It is a very productive tree. Apples have also been used for cider in America, and Barron, in 1883, considered it also a cooker. We have been impressed by it. Pollination Group 4




Various historical writers have said that this was raised by Mr Bellamy before 1796, at Hagloe, and was thought to date from the 1720s. However, an article written in ‘The Universal Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure’ in 1803, by Thomas Skyp Dyot Bucknal Esq. gives a different picture. “The Haglo-Crab, the best cider-fruit now remaining, was discovered in the parish of Ecloe, on the banks of the Severn; and, about sixty or seventy years ago, many scions were taken from this tree by Mr Bellamy, and engrafted on seedling-stocks about Ross. These are now grown old; and, to ascertain the age of this variety, I went with Charles Edwin, Esq. to Ecloes (sic) in hopes of seeing the parent-stock of this family. The proprietor of the estate acquainted Mr Edwin that it had ceased to bear years ago and was cut down. Those at Ross are but poor bearers now, and I should suppose the variety must be 140 years old, though Marshall who wrote in the year 1786, mentions these trees were prolific and he supposed the sort to be about eighty years old; but from present experience, it must be much more.” It would seem to date from 1660. The Tithing of Ecloe seems to be Etloe now, just rural farmland. Hagloe is a nearby tithing at Awre. Tithings were local areas contributing tithes. Ecloe, Etloe and Hagloe hardly exist today, but were close to each other. Lindley, in 1831, said that Mr Wiiliam Marshall stated it to have been raised by Mr Bellamy, of Hagloe, in the parish of Awre, in Gloucestershire, towards the end of the seventeenth century, but that Mr Knight (Thomas Andrew Knight) thought it existed long previous to that time, as long ago the original tree could not be found at Hagloe. Knight, in his Pomona Herefordiensis of 1811 said “Mr. Marshall, in his Rural Economy of Gloucestershire, is the first author who has mentioned this Apple; and he states it to have been raised from seed by the grandfather of Mr. Bellamy of Hagloe, in Gloucestershire, about 70 years preceding the period in which he wrote, which was in 1789. But I have reason to believe that this variety existed at an earlier period, and that Mr. Bellamy's ancestor, on whose estate the original Tree probably grew, is rather entitled to the credit of having first discovered the excellence of the Apple, than to that of having raised it accidentally from seed; for some of my friends sought in vain many years ago for the original Tree at Hagloe.” Knight’s work included coloured engravings by William Hooker and there is one of Hagloe Crab, showing a rather shabby small fruit with yellow skin, and early 19th century descriptions confirm the yellow skin. It is also illustrated in the Herefordshire Pomona and is consistent with the Hooker illustration. That leads to a problem concerning which of two different apples is the correct Hagloe Crab. The one of Martell is a predominently red apple. The one of Bulmers is a yellow apple. Forsyth, in 1810, described it. “The Hagloe Crab is a yellow-coloured conical-?haped Apple, below the middle ?ize. It is ripe in January; but is only fit for making cider, or for baking”. Loudon (1822) said it kept to May, was an upright small-leaved tree and a great bearer. Lindley (1831), probably describing the engraving in the Pomona Herefordiensis, described it as being “Small, ill-shaped, something between an apple and a crab, more long than broad, wide at the base, and narrower at the crown, which is a little sunk, and the eye flat. Skin pale yellow, a little marbled in different directions with a russety grey, and having a few red specks or streaks on the sunny side. Eye flat, with a spreading calyx. Stalk short”. Hogg (1884) said it was a small, ovate fruit, the skin pale yellow, and next the sun streaked red and with a few patches of grey russet. Knight said that even in a poor year he had found the specific gravity of the juice to be 1081, which is very high. Hogg found the flesh to be soft and slightly woolly. Hagloe Crab is not to be confused with the Summer Hagloe, seemingly an American apple.


HAGLOE CRAB (BULMERS) This contender for Hagloe Crab has been championed by John Teiser of the Hereford Cider Museum. The latter holds a tree of this in their Pippin Orchard Collection, propagated from a tree at Goodrich, near Ross-on-Wye, that was propagated from a tree at the Bulmers Coronation Orchard (museum orchard) at King’s Acre, just before the orchard was destroyed and the land sold in the 1980s. John Teiser has said that the same variety can still be found in old Herefordshire orchards, with the planting records of the 1930s being held in the Cider Museum’s archives. Bulmers obtained the true variety in 1883. John has questioned the strength of the account given by Charles Martell, after seeing the notes of the late Ray Williams. He says Ray Williams, the renowned Long Ashton pomologis, had doubts about the variety, and told Charles Martell that he thought the one that he had found could be correct. In his records, Ray made no specific judgement, but recorded and described them both. This apple, (though we have it here, it has not yet fruited) is, from John Teiser’s description, small to medium sized, with variable shape, mostly ovate and often asymmetrical. The skin is pale yellow, with an occasional blush of orange and random crimson spots. Streaks and webs of russet are common. The flesh is white, firm and subacid when ripe in late October or early November. Pollination Group ?


HAGLOE CRAB (MARTELL) Charles Martell, with the Gloucestershire Orchard Group, gives this provenance to their version of Hagloe Crab - Graftwood was obtained from the only known verified tree at H.J.Phelps’ old orchard at Tibberton, from where Long Ashton Research Station, Bristol, would obtain graft material up to the 1950’s. This tree was cut down sometime before the autumn of 1998, but was previously confirmed as the true ‘Hagloe Crab’ by Ray Williams of Long Ashton who worked with this variety in the 1950s. The problem is that this apple is not yellow, but almost covered in fairly dark red, albeit with patches of russet. Said to be a late season bittersweet, it does not have the bitter tannins. The shape is oval and medium sized, though sometimes smaller, and not like the coloured engraving in the Pomona Herefordiensis. The short stalk, shallow basin and the calyx, might be in accord. It is certainly late season, and even in November the flesh is hard, though with some sweetness and acceptable acid, so that it could be eaten raw, except for the tough flesh. It would certainly store into the New Year and does become more yielding. The flesh is not soft and woolly, as described by Hogg. It does not soften willingly or improve with cooking. The blossom has dark buds and pink petals. Pollination Group 5
HAMBLEDON DEUX ANS Syn. Green Blenheim. Discovered at Hambledon, Hampshire in the mid eighteenth century; there are still said to be many old trees in the area. A culinary apple with large, sweet, fruit, that keeps its shape or will mash to a rich purée. It is also a sweet and tangy dessert apple when fully ripe. Famous for its long keeping properties - it was said that it could keep for two years, hence the name. Very long-lived trees, with a spreading habit and pretty deep pink blossom. Part tip bearing. T*. Pollination Group 3
  HANWELL SOURING A late culinary apple known since the early 19th century. It originated at Hanwell, near Banbury, and was once grown all over Warwickshire and the West Midlands. Hogg, in his Fruit Manual, called it a ‘first rate kitchen apple’, and its crisp greenish flesh was valued by those who enjoyed a sharp cooking apple. The apples will last into the New Year, staying rich and acid, but a bit sweeter and more lemony, cooking to a purée. Moderately vigorous trees, with a spreading habit. T*. Pollination Group 4    
HARGREAVE’S GREENSWEET An 18th century variety first recorded by Hogg, who was introduced to it by Hargreave’s Nursery, Lancaster. A tree, which was very old in 1846, still stood in the nursery. It is a middle season dessert apple, with medium-sized oblong fruit, angular on the sides and ribbed around the eye. The skin is yellow, tinted green in the shade, and dark yellow with green tints and a few faint red streaks in the sun. The flesh was described as yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and perfumed, but lacking acidity. Ripe in September and October. The variety had not been heard of since Hogg’s report, but was rediscovered by Philip Rainford in Lancashire. He came across an old tree and was told it was called Green Sweet (which is another distinct apple). Since the apple he had discovered did not accord with the descriptions of Green Sweet it occurred to him that it might be Hargreave’s Greensweet. The characteristics tallied completely with Hogg’s description. He kindly sent scions to us. Pollination Group 5
  HARRY SISSEN’S YELLOW Harry Sissen, when a lad, (he is now in his 80s) had a favourite old apple tree in the orchard attached to the farm where he lived at East Cowton, near Northallerton, North Yorkshire. He came to own the farm but moved to a nearby farm and wanted a tree of his ‘favourite’ at his new home, so he grafted a new tree – in 1981. The very old original tree, with three trunks and 10ft before it branched, has now gone - to make way for a tennis court. He sent us apples at the end of October, in 2018, proving it a good eating and culinary apple. It is medium sized, pale yellow when ripe, with prominent spots, lightly ribbed, with a deep, open eye and a stubby stalk. It might be ripe earlier in the South and the apples sent suggested they might be crisper and juicier, if gathered earlier. The apples were sweet and with a strong, rich flavour, with a good balance of acid. When cooked the flesh broke down to a very soft texture, almost to a purée, quite quickly, with the sweetness more pronounced and a very rich flavour, well balanced and with no need for added sugar. Harry says it is a regular cropper with all the fruit of uniform size, though sometimes larger than the ones he sent. A very good apple and, thankfully, preserved by Harry Sissen. Pollination Group 6    
HARVEST LEMON One of several old fruit varieties discovered and saved for posterity by Hilary Wilson of Appleby-in-Westmorland, who sent us scionwood. She rediscovered it a few years ago at Cumwhinton, near Carlisle. The tree (now dead) at Stoneraise Farm, Armathwaite, was in an old orchard owned by the grandmother of the wife of Jim Armstrong, a retired agriculturist. Harvest Lemon was first recorded at the Apple and Pear conference of 1934, when it was exhibited from Cumberland, the only occasion upon which it has been noted. It is both a dessert apple and cooker, middle season, of medium size and with green skin turning yellow. Ripe in early October, it is a lemony, but sweet eating apple and when cooked it will keep its shape, becoming richer. Apples will last to December, but lose condition by then. Pollination Group 3
HARVEY Syn. Dr. Harvey. It was named after Dr Gabriel Harvey, who was the master of Trinity Hall College at Cambridge. A very old apple, described by Parkinson in 1629 as "a faire great goodly apple, and very well relished". A large culinary apple, with a russeted skin and sweet flesh; though we have previously said it makes a rich tasting purée, longer experience suggests it keeps its shape and is a bit ordinary. It was widely planted in East Anglia and is still found in Norfolk. Heavy crops. Stores until December. Trees are vigorous and part tip bearing. Pollination Group 4
HATFIELD COSTARD For a full account of ‘The Costard’ please see our website. This apple grows, as a very old tree, at the old sawmill on the Hatfield Estate. A very interesting episode and exchange happened between the widow of Sir Thomas Tresham (1543-1605) of Lyveden New Bield in Northamptonshire and Robert Cecil (spymaster) at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, at the start of the 17th century. Dame Muriel Tresham donated fruit trees to Hatfield House in 1609, probably as a 'Thank You' to Robert Cecil for calling off her persecutors. Sir Thomas had been a Roman Catholic and stood on the wrong side of the times, often perilously. After his death, his widow was still facing antipathy. In 1609 she complained of her treatment to Cecil and offered him 50 trees 'out of Lyveden orchard towarde the planting of the orchard which I heare your Lordship intendeth at Hatfeyld'. A receipt for the trees exists at Hatfield though there is no record of whether the trees were bought or were a gift. Dame Muriel said 'I think no one place can furnish your Lordship with more and better trees, and of a fitter growth, than this ground. For my late worthy husband, as he did take great delight, so did he come to great experience and judgement therein' and 'I will have Catshead, and Dr. Harveys, and French Crab for making cider … And Great Green Costard”. Another interesting connection was between Robert Cecil at Hatfield and John Tradescant the Elder 1570-1638). Tradescant produced a list in 1634 of the plants and trees collected by him and planted at ‘The Ark’ at Lambeth, Surrey. He included both 'Smelling Costard' (the only reference) and Grey Costard. Since the Costard existed with Tresham, and his wife, Dame Muriel, after his death, donated Costards to Robert Cecil at Hatfield House in Hertfordshire in 1609, might it still exist there? Peter Oakenfull, Ecologist and 'Apple Hunter' - a friend of ours - had a personal communication from a former head gardener to The Dowager Lady Salisbury, at Hatfield, that this and other trees supplied by Lady Tresham, were planted in the walled Vineyard at Hatfield. No truly ancient apple trees still exist in this very large walled garden and none that could be considered Costards. In an orchard at the Old Sawmill at Hatfield there are two apples which could fit the 'Costard' brief. Peter says 'the Vineyard is around 200m from Sawmill but there were other orchards towards Sawmill... they would have most likely been considered as being in the Vineyard area though'. Could they have come from a decrepit Tresham tree in the Vineyard, making their way from sequential graftings, to the Sawmill? There are two trees there which bear large, ribbed, green apples, late in season and lasting into the New Year. Both are cooking apples that can be eaten raw at full maturity in November. One is very old and the other was seemingly planted in the first part of the 20th century, though accurate estimates of apple tree age are very difficult to make. It might be that this younger tree was grafted from a much older tree that was failing in the same orchard. Being young does not signify that the variety is young. Both trees have DNA unmatched with all others that have been tested and each is different to the other as regards DNA. We are dealing here with the older tree, now named Hatfield Costard, in view of the similarity of shape, colour and character, as far as we are able to glean, from the historic literature on the Costard. Large, late season, green and ribbed. The apples are ripe in November, into December, and have cream flesh, light in texture like many cooking apples, but sweet and juicy enough, with good acid and a richness of flavour to be eaten raw with pleasure. The apples cook fairly quickly, not giving up much juice, keeping some shape but willing to mash and the colour is now pale yellow. The flesh is sweet, very rich and the taste lingers in the mouth. Pollination Group ?
HAUT-BONTÉ A fine dessert apple said to come from Poitou in France and believed to date from the 1200s. It was first recorded in England when included in Philip Miller’s 1724 “The Gardeners and Florists Dictionary”. Our scion wood came from the French national collection, at Angers, in 2006. A green, lightly russeted apple with a broken tawny flush in the sun, ripe very late in the year and often only at its best in late November. The flesh is juicy, very sweet, with a rich flavour and the apples store well. Highly rated by all the historic writers who knew it. Pollination Group 6
HAWTHORNDEN An old cooking apple, popular in Scotland in the eighteenth century, also called Glory of Scotland. Rogers (1837) said it was the best Scottish cooking apple, early, prolific and healthy and thrives in any soil. It was not known around London until introduced by the Brompton Park Nursery in 1790. Medium to large fruit, with crisp, juicy, white, fragrant flesh, which keeps some shape when cooked and makes good baked apples. By mid September the apples develop sweetness and become pleasant for eating. Vigorous trees, with good crops. Middle fruiting and storing to November. Dark buds and attractive blossom. Pollination Group 4
  HELMSLEY MARKET APPLE Sent to us by fruit enthusiast Hilary Wilson, of Appleby-in-Westmorland. It is an old variety that she noticed and later acquired from a garden in Wass, North Yorkshire, close to Byland Abbey. The owner said her two trees were bought, by the old man who lived there before her, from Helmsley Market. It is an interesting looking, long apple of medium size, golden green on one side, with a warm amber red blush on the side in the sun, not striped. The small open eye is set in a very deep basin, slightly puckered. There is a short medium thick stalk, with russet veining at the stalk end. The body is slightly ribbed. The flesh is pleasantly sweet, slightly acidic and tender. It is mainly of culinary use, but it is a pleasant eater, when fully ripe. The nature of this apple varies quite markedly with the location, climate and the length of storage. If picked too early or sun is lacking, it can be very sharp, but it sweetens up considerably (and quickly) with storage. Cooked, it keeps some shape and is very rich, sweet but perhaps wanting some sugar. By the end of November it is crisp, sweet, rich, slightly acid and a very good eating apple. Mid-late season, storing for a while. It has been suggested that this is the Lady’s Finger of Lancaster, but without sufficient reason. Pollination Group 5