GRANIWINKLE A lovely little American apple, which takes its name from the farmer who first cultivated it. First described by William Coxe in America in 1817, it was in England by 1831 when it was included in ‘A Guide To The Orchard and Fruit Garden’ by Lindley and was later described also by Scott in 1872. It seems to have been lost in England since then, but we have brought it back from America, since it is such a valuable triple purpose apple, equally acclaimed for eating, cooking and cider. The small to medium sized apples are ripe in September, and have a smooth skin as if wax polished. They are crunchy rather than crisp and soon soften in October but are very rich, sweet and juicy if eaten soon after picking. Pollination Group 3



GRANNY SHAN A very large, distinctive looking cooker, full flavoured and keeping its shape when cooked lightly, but breaking down to a purée if cooked longer. The lightly ribbed irregular body is green with pale flecks and a pinkish tinge in the sun. The apple was brought to us by Shannon Carr of Litchfield House, Newbury, Berkshire. The healthy old tree, probably more than a century old, is hollow and was filled with concrete some time ago, for stability (not recommended), and having been well pruned it is now bearing strongly. Mr and Mrs Carr’s house was built in 1893, possibly on an existing orchard, with other old trees in the area. The variety name of this apple is now lost, it not being readily identifiable from any similar apples in collections, so we have adopted the name given by Shannon Carr’s (Granny Shan) daughter, Jane. Fairly late flowering, but ripe at the end of September and storing for several weeks. Attractive pink blossom. Our thanks to Shannon and John Carr for saving it and helping us get it back out to the world. Pollination Group 5




GRAVENSTEIN An old dual-purpose apple whose origins are obscure. Hogg relates that it came from the garden of the Duke of Augustenberg in Schleswig-Holstein: others suggest that it was from the South Tyrol. It became popular all over Germany and Northern Europe in the eighteenth century, and Lindley states that it was first exhibited in England in 1819. By 1820 it had reached California, probably taken by Russian settlers. Quite large fruit, flushed orange and red, and slightly irregular in shape. The flesh is initially firm and juicy, with a very rich flavour. It is also excellent for cooking. The trees are vigorous with good crops; they have attractive blossom with large white flowers. Ready in late September, it will store until November. Early flowering and part tip bearing. T. Pollination Group 1


GREASY JACK An old apple in the garden of Ann Pantin of Great Haseley, Oxfordshire, introduced to us by Mary Walters of Oxford. It has a greasy skin, but is not as bad as some. The name was passed on to her by a local inhabitant of the village. Smooth, green skin, becoming more yellow and with a shiny surface. The flesh is crisp and sharp. The fruit is best suited for cooking or as a cider sharp, being quite acidic though without much tannin. Although it is small for a cooking apple, it has a sweet, rich flavour when cooked, though some might like sugar added. It has a curious peppery effect on the tongue and throat, not unpleasant. Ripe in late October it stays solid beyond the end of the year. It becomes sweeter in December and can be eaten raw. Pollination Group 5

GREEN BALSAM A Yorkshire cooking apple (also well represented in Cumbria) which was first mentioned in the nursery catalogue of Backhouse, at York, in 1816. Hogg (1884) said it was very popular in North Yorkshire, where it was regarded as 'the farmer's wife's apple', and grown in almost every garden and orchard. Scott (1872) called it a fine late keeping kitchen apple. Ripe in November and crisp, though not particularly juicy, when cooked it keeps its shape, becomes lemony and is sweet, but some extra sugar is desirable. It will keep into the next year. Pollination Group 4
GREEN CUSTARD An old cooking apple from Sussex and probably elsewhere. The name is close enough to the ancient Green Costard of Parkinson to speculate that it might be the same. The apples are continuously green, large, ribbed and similar in shape to Catshead, but are ready earlier, in September, and have a slightly sharper taste. It is also a fair eating apple in warm summers or when stored for a while. T* Pollination Group 5
GREEN PIPPIN A very old apple, first mentioned in 1670 by Leonard Meager and listed in 1676 by John Rea in England. It was in the London Horticultural Society collection in 1842, at Dublin in 1867 and last noted in England in 1897 in Glastonbury, Somerset. Warder in America in 1867 said that Green Pippin originated in Indiana but any American origin is rather hazy. It cannot now be ascertained if this apple, which we received from the late Nick Botner, in Oregon, is the same and original Green Pippin, but it is nonetheless an excellent apple. The medium to large oblong apples are pure green with a light amber blush, becoming paler with storage. The flesh is fine, crisp, very sweet, without much acid and with a strong flavour, rich and slightly herbal. Ripe from late October the apples stay in very good condition throughout November and even to the end of the year. Pollination Group 4
GREEN SWEET The oldest apple with this name (there having been others of a different nature) was in the London Horticultural Society collection in 1826. A ‘Green Sweet’ has been known in America from about the same era and perhaps considered to have arisen in New England, but there is no certain history to suggest it is American or indeed English. Descriptions agree that it is an excellent late season apple, ripe in mid October and which stores into the New Year, retaining all its quality. A smallish green apple, with fine, melting and juicy flesh, sweet, but not sickly, and with a little acid and a well balanced complex flavour. Delicious for eating but also a good cooking apple, even if rather small. The flesh softens, keeping its shape, revealing an extra flavour, and turning a warm colour. Pollination Group 4
GREENUP’S PIPPIN A Cumberland triple purpose apple, the first reference we have being in 1798, in the catalogue of Clark and Atkinson, nurserymen of Keswick, Cumberland and Keighley, Yorkshire, and listed as a baking apple. The South Lakeland Orchard Group have an earlier reference, putting the date of introduction as 1769. It was found in the garden of a shoemaker called Greenup at Keswick and introduced by Clark and Atkinson. Since they had a nursery in Yorkshire as well as Cumberland, old trees are found in both counties. The apple has been confused with both Yorkshire Beauty and Green Roland (Rolland) but there is evidence to suggest that all three are distinct. A green apple, turning yellow in the sun and often with a warm blush, with tender, sweet, juicy flesh and ripe in October. It cooks to a purée. Before fully ripe while still sharp, it has been used as a cider bittersharp. A good bearer though a modest sized tree. Pollination Group 5
GRENADIER Probably known since at least the early nineteenth century, though first exhibited in 1862 by Turner of Slough and then made popular by George Bunyard. A large, early cooking apple, ready in September and October, with crisp, white, tangy flesh. It cooks quickly and keeps most of its shape but is soft and would mash. The flavour is lemony and a little sharp, though it has some sweetness. It is better with added sugar. The flavour is refreshing but light. It has been very popular in the North as it is resistant to scab and canker, growing well in wet climates. Heavy Crops. Pollination Group 4