GOLDEN PIPPIN The Golden Pippin is a very old English dessert apple, possibly originally from Sussex. Rogers (1837) said it was first raised at Parham Park on the South Downs (Sussex) but there have been many different Golden Pippins described down the centuries and there is some current confusion about which extant apples relate to which descriptions. Parkinson in 1629, called Golden Pippin ‘the greatest and best of all sorts of pippins’. Forsyth in 1810 describes the Golden Pippin, but also lists a Large Golden Pippin, and comments that there are several ‘sorts’. Lindley, in 1831, describes many different types. Taylor, in 1946, thought it extinct. It has also been used for cider according to John Evelyn and was recommended by Hannah Glasse, the famous eighteenth century cookery writer, for drying and for making apple jelly or sweetmeats. The apple has been recorded throughout Europe for centuries. The one offered here is originally from the Wisley collection. The small apple is flattened ‘oblong’, sometimes conical, with a rich, sweet tangy flavour. It has russet at the eyes and russet patches and dots on the body. Late fruiting. Pollination Group 4




GOLDEN REINETTE An old variety, dating back to at least the late seventeenth century and once popular all over Europe. Hogg (1884) said it had always been regarded as a Hertfordshire apple. Called ‘golden’ because the sweet and tasty fruit ripens to a rich gold, though often with fine streaks of amber or red. It was once said to be the farmer’s favourite apple because the trees would bear fruit ‘when all others miss bearing’. Rogers (1837) said the flowers were resistant to frost. It has been valued and grown widely throughout England. The fruit is good to eat for dessert, with firm, juicy, sweet and rich flesh, and may also be used for cooking when it will keep its shape, is sweet and very rich. Ideal for tarts. It was also once used for cider. Ripens in October and stores until January. Free spur bearing. Pollination Group 4






GOLDEN RUSSET (ALLGROVE) This Golden Russet was saved from Allgrove’s Nursery at Middle Green, Buckinghamshire when the last Mr Allgrove died. Allgrove’s was a long established nursery that went back to the 19th century when it was owned by Veitch’s. Nick Houston, who was close to the family, retrieved some of the varieties when the nursery closed and the trees were at risk. Nick Houston passed Golden Russet to Mr and Mrs Weaser of Shoreham, Kent; they passed it to the late Canon Donald Johnson and he passed it to us. It is slightly more uniformly russeted than the version above, but russet can vary from place to place and year to year, and we continue to observe similarities and differences. This version also conforms to the historical descriptions (above) and is a very rich apple to eat. Ripe in October and lasting to the year end. Pollination Group 3

GOLDEN RUSSET (CLARKE) Long considered ‘lost’, the Golden Russet is a very old and esteemed apple. According to Forsyth in 1810, “The Golden Russet is a fine middle-sized Apple, of a golden-russet colour, from which it takes its name. This is a good Apple, and keeps long.” Hogg in 1884 repeats the words of Worlidge in 1676 who said it was 'without dispute, the most pleasant apple that grows' and adds, that it is a medium sized fruit, covered with yellowish russet, which is thickest around the base and on the side next the sun. It sometimes has a glossy red patch next the sun. The flesh is pale yellow, crisp, sweet and perfumed, but not particularly juicy. It fruits best if the tree is in a warm spot. In season December to March. Bunyard, in the 1920s, adds that there is much confusion between this, the English Russet, and the Roxbury Russet. He says he has never managed to obtain a true variety of Golden Russet. Trees planted in the National Fruit Trials in 1923 were removed some time ago. We now have two versions of Golden Russet and both have a good claim to authenticity. This one is from Mr and Mrs Peter Clarke of Benson, Oxfordshire. It seems to match Hogg’s and Scott’s descriptions. Peter Clarke’s grandfather built his house in 1928, within a mature orchard. This particular old tree was known as Golden Russet by his grandfather. The apples are sometimes flatter than Hogg’s description, but otherwise in accordance. The flesh is cream-yellow and a little coarse. It is crisp, not particularly juicy but very rich. The eye is small, open and in a shallow basin close to the end of the apple, with a slightly knobbed ring of russet around it. The skin is pale gold with lots of darker dots and variable russet, golden at the stalk end. There is a hint of five ribs on the body. Ripe in October, storing to January. We are grateful to Mr and Mrs P. Clarke for providing us with scionwood for this and Meadfoot Wonder (see later). Pollination Group 5
GOLDEN SPIRE Discovered or rediscovered in Lancashire in the 1850s and introduced by nurseryman Richard Smith of Worcester. In Gloucestershire it was known as Tom Matthews and was used for cider making. A popular 19th century culinary apple, also eaten for dessert when fully ripe. Tangy and quite richly flavoured, it can be watery if under-ripe. The fruits are golden, long, and oblong. Crisp and juicy as a dessert apple, it cooks to a well-flavoured, yellow purée. Golden Spire was used as an ornamental tree in the formal garden or in the kitchen garden as it has attractive pink blossom. Good crops and very hardy. Middle to late season. Freely spurring. Pollination Group 2
GOODY’S GRAVENSTEIN There is nothing traditionally British about this apple and it does not deserve to be included, under our normal rules of inclusion. Nevertheless, we will break our own rules and here it is. It is just too good to ignore. It came from an old garden/orchard, dating from the early 1900s, owned by Mr Goody, an old pioneer homesteader, whose business was logging, on Gambier Island, Howe Sound in British Columbia, Canada. He seems to have been a bit of a character and kept a tame squirrel in his pocket. It seems likely that it was a seedling of Gravenstein, bred by him, but the origin remains obscure, beyond it being known locally as Goody’s Gravenstein. It is much more colourful than, and different in character from, Gravenstein, which is an old German apple predating 1669, when its arrival was noted in Denmark. Fuller details are included below under Gravenstein. Many apples have been bred from Gravenstein, but we doubt many are better than Goody’s Gravenstein. This apple was discovered by Dick Hammond and later, with his wife Jo, they went to the nearby Gambier Island to take some grafts to produce their own tree. In 2008, their daughter Patricia, a professional singer, called at our nursery to tell us all about it, with great enthusiasm. Dick had recently died and this was his favourite apple. Jo subsequently sent some scionwood and all the historical details. We reserved judgement, but when our tree first fruited in 2012 we knew they were right and that this apple is special. A uniform and pretty medium-sized apple, sometimes large. The skin has a light bloom, but is waxy and shiny in the hand. It is pale green but almost entirely covered with crimson feathery streaks, some broader flashes and patches. The flesh is crunchy, crisp, very juicy, sweet, without much sharpness, and with a delicate flavour hinting of strawberries. Depending on the year’s weather and the place, it is ripe in late August to mid September, and it keeps well for several weeks. Like Gravenstein, it seems very hardy. The winters of British Columbia can be harsh. With us it is unflinching in cold temperatures and willing to fruit when young. An excellent and very pretty apple. We are most grateful to all the Hammond family for their help and for allowing it to find its way here. Pollination Group 3
GOOSEBERRY PIPPIN Closer observation leads us to believe that this is the same as the ‘Gooseberry’ previously listed separately. The latter is said to be a Kentish apple, first recorded in 1826, when in the first collection catalogue of the London Horticultural Society. It was likely named for its bright green appearance and the sharpness of its flesh. It was widely grown for the market in the 19th century as a sauce apple. We discovered Gooseberry Pippin in the Grove Heritage Collection in Tasmania, and they sent us scions in 2005. We wondered whether it was the same as Gooseberry, but early signs suggested it was different. It was surely taken out to Australia by early settlers. It is a remarkably sharp, late season cooking apple, which cooks quickly to a purée the flavour of lemon juice. With sugar added it makes the richest apple sauce we have known. The apples are hard and stay on the tree, even into the New Year, and will last well, but can be used from early November. T* Pollination Group 4
GORDON PRESTON In 2016, Pat and Gordon Preston of Minster Lovell village, west of Oxford, told us about some old apple trees they had and we visited to receive an interesting tale surrounding the trees. One was the Original Blenheim, recorded separately in this catalogue. The other was an apple unmatched in its DNA and now named after the late Gordon Preston. The Prestons had taken a keen interest in their home’s history which had been in the family for generations. It began with the Chartist Movement of 1838, which was a political movement aiming to attain universal male suffrage (the Vote). They were strongest in 1839-48. They also believed in making available a home and a piece of land to those without such means of self sufficiency and built an estate of houses with large gardens on the edge of Minster Lovell. There was the suspicion that their real motive was to increase the number of votes in a marginal constituency! This was in 1848 and it seems likely that apple trees were planted contemporaneously in the gardens of the new houses. Several of these other properties have old apple trees. Certainly this tree and the Original Blenheim, still in good health with Pat Preston look to be of that age. Gordon was adamant at our meeting that no building or trees were present before 1848. ‘Gordon Preston’ is normally ripe in October, but perhaps earlier in hot years, and we have kept them here in good condition to the year end. Medium to large, they are sometimes rounded but most are conical and ribbed, especially around the eye and some have a waist. Green turning pale yellow, they are occasionally russeted with cream coloured flesh. They are juicy enough and nicely sweet, with a rich lemony flavour and not particularly acid. They are also valuable cooking apples, cooking quickly and not giving up much juice, needing more added water. They keep their shape completely and the flesh is excellent for tarts becoming very rich indeed, lemony and tangy at the back of the throat. It is quite sweet enough, but a little sugar might be preferred by some. Excellent dual purpose. Pollination Group 5
GRAND DUKE CONSTANTINE An old Crimean apple, widely grown in Europe including England. It was already established in Britain by 1850, and was in existence in 1905, but has not been known here since. Reintroduced to Britain by us in 2005, following our discovery of it in the Grove Research Station, Tasmania. Grand Duc de Constantine is also a synonym of Alexander, but this is a different apple, even though they are superficially similar. It was named after a Russian admiral, Grand Duke Constantine. It is both a culinary apple and a sharp/bittersharp cider apple. It is ready in the middle of September but does not keep for long. It was reported to ripen in Thirsk, North Yorkshire in November, so it will grow in the north. The large apples have skin of clear yellow, almost covered in crimson streaks near the sun. The flesh is white, tender, juicy and sweet, with a balsamic aroma. Pollination Group 4
GRAND SULTAN According to Scott in 1872 in ‘The Orchardist’ this apple was introduced from Russia in 1864. It has been found in numbers in North Devon and Gloucestershire. Though confused in the past with White and Yellow Transparent it is not the same. It resembles Duchess of Oldenburg and is just as pretty an apple, and redder. It has been said to be a dual purpose apple but is much better for eating raw than cooking. Ripe in early September, the flesh is crisp, fine textured, sweet and juicy with good acid and a very complex rich flavour. When cooked it keeps its shape, is sweet and develops more acidity but there is still no need for sugar. Some flavour is lost. An attractive and tasty apple. Pollination Group 5
GRANGE’S PEARMAIN The first reference to this apple was in the London Horticultural Society catalogue of 1826. Hogg records that it was raised by James Grange, market gardener from Kingsland, Middlesex, who also had fruit shops in Covent Garden and Piccadilly. A large, dual purpose, usually pearmain-shaped apple (i.e. longish oval) but sometimes more round and flatter. It has yellow skin tinted green, and with pearly specks on the shaded side and broken stripes and spots of crimson and russet where exposed to the sun. The flesh is yellow-white, crisp, dense but tender, juicy and sweet, having a rich lemony flavour with hints of melon and cucumber. A dessert apple that is also good when baked. Scott considered it unsurpassed for baking. It has a fragrant and very fruity scent and very rich flavour, if kept for a while. Ripe at the end of October or early November, it keeps to February. Bunyard describes this as the nearest approach to the Newtown Pippin – a compliment. He said it stores until May, that it was probably introduced by Dickson's of Chester before 1829 and that it keeps well, retaining its crisp, juicy flesh in the spring. It has also been used for cider. An excellent dessert apple. T* Pollination Group 4